Murray v. United States

487 U. S. 533

June 27, 1988

Police entered a warehouse without a warrant and saw several suspicious looking bales in plain view. Not mentioning any of this in their request, these officers got a warrant, and seized the bales, which contained marijuana. An earlier case called Segura allowed for evidence seized with a warrant to stand, even if the police had earlier made an illegal entry, provided that the warrant was not based on any evidence gained from the previous entry. The question was whether the Segura doctrine applied in this case, where apparent evidence had been in plain view.

The Court ruled 4-3 that such evidence need not be suppressed (Brennan and Kennedy did not participate). As long as the warrant was in no way based on evidence from the previous entry, it made no difference whether the evidence ultimately seized had been previously visible or not. He found support for the conclusion in the inevitable discovery doctrine, which allowed for even illegally seized evidence to come in if it would have inevitably been found by legal means. Scalia did not think this rule would encourage bad police behavior, but did remand to determine whether the policemen would have applied for a warrant without seeing the bales.

Marshall, joined by Stevens and O’Connor, dissented. He thought it almost certain that the police only applied for a warrant because they saw the bales. He thought this extension of the Segura rule would positively encourage bad conduct by the police. Just do an illegal search, and don’t bother getting a warrant unless you see evidence of wrongdoing. The potential for abuse was simply too high, and greater deterrence was needed. Stevens, in his own dissent, registered his continuing belief that Segura itself was wrongly decided and should be overruled.

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