487 U. S. 250
June 22, 1988
A prosecutor led a grand jury on a lawless witch hunt against a bank and several associated individuals. The prosecutor violated several grand jury rules to secure 27 indictments. A District Court dismissed all the indictments because of the violations, using its supervisory power as a court of law. The government tried to salvage the case by claiming that the District Court could not exercise such a supervisory power unless the defendants were prejudiced by the violations, and that the alleged violations were all harmless error.
Regrettably, the Supreme Court agreed in an 8-1 vote. Kennedy said that Rule 52(a) very strongly implied that indictments could only be dismissed upon a finding of harmful error to the defendant. The indictments could be dismissed only if the abuses had substantial likelihood of pushing the grand jury to indict. Kennedy then went through an impressively long listing of prosecutorial abuse. For each and every instance, Kennedy found a way to argue that it probably would not have affected the grand jury’s final decision. Because all the errors were somehow harmless, the indictments had to be reinstated.
Scalia, concurring, noted that a District Court’s supervisory powers should generally be construed narrowly. Marshall filed a lonely dissent. He pointed out that it was extremely difficult to discover instances of prosecutorial abuse during a grand jury phase because of all the attendant secrecy. He contended that insulating prosecutors even further with a harmless error analysis was unfair. “Today’s decision reduces [grand jury rules] to little more than a code of honor that prosecutors can violate with virtual impunity.”
I think what really bothered me about this case was not the legal holding, but the majority’s application of it. I’m all for a single instance of harmless error being forgiven. What strained my credulity were the majority’s casual assurances that every single one of the long list of errors were all coincidentally harmless.